Frequency modulation, or FM, is an analog modulation scheme that encodes information by changing the frequency of a carrier wave.
FM is commonly used in
- FM Radio stations to transmit music and speech
- Pager standards such as POCSAG
- Weather satellites sending pictures using Automatic Picture Transmission (APT)
- Handheld radio transceivers using Narrow FM (NFM)
Implementation in Python
RATE = 32_000
# Phase accumulator
ph = 0
for s in samples:
ph += 2 * math.pi * s / RATE
i = math.sin(ph)
q = math.cos(ph)
If you find this work useful, please cite it as:
title = "Frequency Modulation",
author = "Yaltirakli, Gokberk",
journal = "gkbrk.com",
year = "2023",
url = "https://www.gkbrk.com/wiki/frequency-modulation/"
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Gokberk Yaltirakli, "Frequency Modulation", December, 2023. [Online]. Available: https://www.gkbrk.com/wiki/frequency-modulation/. [Accessed Dec. 04, 2023].
Yaltirakli, G. (2023, December 04). Frequency Modulation. https://www.gkbrk.com/wiki/frequency-modulation/
Gokberk Yaltirakli, Frequency Modulation, GKBRK.COM (Dec. 04, 2023), https://www.gkbrk.com/wiki/frequency-modulation/